– Enthalpy is a state function because it depends only on the initial and final states of the system. It is independent of pressure because ΔH is always measured at constant pressure (if it were measured at changing pressure, we”d call it q, not ΔH). – Energy is a state function because it depends only on the initial and final states of the system.
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– Distance traveled is a path function because it depends on the path you take, and not just your initial and final position. – Work is a path function because it depends on the pressure during expansion/compression and not just the initial and final volumes and pressures. – Heat is a path function because it depends on the pressure during heating/cooling and not just the initial and final temperatures and pressures.
– A system with more possible arrangements will have a higher entropy.- change in entropy= k(ln(W-final/W-initial))-where k is Boltzmann”s constant, – ΔS is the change in entropy, – W is a number associated with the possible number of microstates of a system. – k is a positive number and W is a function of the number of moles of gas present. – The larger the number of moles of a gas that are present, the greater the number of possible ways there are to arrange them. So any reaction that increases the number of moles of gas increases the entropy of the system, and ΔSrxn (change in S reaction) is POSITIVE. – Any reaction that decreases the number of moles of a gas decreases the entropy of the system, and ΔSrxn is negative. – Note that this reasoning only applies to the number of moles of gas present. Since molecules in a solid cannot freely move around with respect to each other, the number of possible arrangements in a solid is very small compared to a gas.
Under standard conditions (298 K and 1 atm), which statement is true?A. diamond converts to graphite spontaneouslyB. graphite converts to diamond spontaneouslyC. none of the above
How can the spontaneity of the reaction be reversed?A. increase tempB. decrease tempC. none of the above
Acids will have at least one ionizable hydrogen atom, usually written at the beginning of the chemical formula. When a molecule of acid dissociates, it produces H
Many bases will have hydroxide ion at the end of the chemical formula
Neutralization reactions between acids and bases produce salts. Salts are are ionic compounds that do not contain ionizable hydrogen (H ) or hydroxide ions (OH-)NH4NO3(aq) –> (NH4)^+(aq) +(NO3)^-(aq)