Verbs can be defined as words of doable activities or words that express states of being and typically constitute the grammatical center of a sentence.
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Verbs constitute a vast and important class of words whose forms change according to tenseOpens in new window or moodOpens in new window.A verb indicates the action performed by the subjectOpens in new window or the current state—state of being—of the subject. Consider the following examples:
Verbs are generally known to follow the subject of a sentence, although sometimes with one or more intervening words.
|I enjoy the guitar lesson.We ran across the street.The winner takes all the praise.That man is a footballer.|
There are some cases, however, in which a verb may precede the subjectOpens in new window.
|Floating on the water was a single petal.Waiting on the door was a postman.|
We find a verb phrase in almost every sentence. A verb phraseOpens in new window may have a single word or more words.
|The sun rises in the east.She has invested some money in her business.He has been living in Memphis since 2001.They will have been waiting for us.|
Types of Verbs
Verbs are divided into different classes. These are briefly discussed below:
1. Regular and Irregular Verbs
Regular verbs, which account for the majority of verbs, follow a standard pattern in their various tenses, whereas, irregular verbsOpens in new window, which are much more unpredictable, follow a nonstandard pattern.
2. Finite and Nonfinite Verbs
A grammatically correct sentence must contain a phrase with a finite verb. A finite verbOpens in new window has both a subjectOpens in new window and a specific tenseOpens in new window, numberOpens in new window, and personOpens in new window, as appropriate to constitute a complete sentence.
|The clock stopped. The balls are blue. He stands alone.|
The non-finite forms of a verb include the infinitiveOpens in new window, the present participleOpens in new window, and the past participleOpens in new window.
These verbs cannot by themselves constitute a complete sentence and do not change to reflect singular and plural or tenseOpens in new window e.g. “going to school,” “walking by the river.”
3. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
There is also the subdivision of transitive and intransitive groups:
Transitive verbs typically takes and transfer their action to a direct object to constitute a complete sense.
The underlined words below are transitive verbs:
Andy eats breakfast. (breakfast as direct object receiving the action “eats”)Gretchen brought liveliness. (liveliness as direct object of the action verb, brought)She cuts her nails.
(nail receiving the action cuts.)
Transitive verb also consists in the following types:
Ditransitive verb, which is a form of transitive verb that takes both a directOpens in new window and an indirect objectOpens in new window.
The following are examples of ditransitive verbs:
lent her a pen.The philanthropist brought cheerfulness to widowsThat horrid music gave me a headache.
Ditransitive prepositional verb is another form of transitive verb that takes both a directOpens in new window and an indirect objectOpens in new window.
In this form, the direct object usually requires an introductory preposition:
Intransitive verbs typically do not take a direct object. They complete a sentence independently without necessarily transferring action to anything or objects before making complete sense.
The underlined words in the sentences are transitive verbs:
Andy ate.The bridge collapsed.Everything vanished.
All these sentences make complete sense without transfering action to a direct object (receiver).
Although some verbs are always transitive or intransitive, but many may be used either transitively or intransitively in different contexts.
The same verb can have a different meaning depending on whether it is being used transitively or intransitively, as:
4. Reflexive Verbs
In reflexive verbs, whose actions are directed back to their subjects, the subject and object are the same.
|She prides herself. He drove himself They praise themselves. The baby amuses itself with a rattle.|
5. Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary VerbsOpens in new window represent another class of verbs, known as modalsOpens in new window, which are used to help main verbs indicate shades of meaning, tense, and mood. They include shall, will, may, can, must.
Observe the following sentences:
Another class of auxiliary verbs are the forms of be, have, and do, which can sometimes be used independently as main verb:
Another class of verbs, that closely resembles auxiliary verbs are semi-modals and verb phrasesOpens in new window, which include: dare, going to, be able to, had better, need to, ought to, used to, and would rather.
Like auxiliary verbs, these also come before the main verb, which is rendered in the bare infinitive (without to):
He was able to complete the project.We are going to be at the event.He had better leave before it gets dark.We used to play hide and seek in his house.They ought to pay the workers.
6. Catenative Verbs
Catenative VerbsOpens in new window consist in a string of verbs used in combination with one another. These verbs, like the auxiliary verbs, are used in front of a main verb in its infinitive form (including to).
|She managed to seem to be surprised. As time passes we begin to get to know each other better.|
7. Linking or Copular Verbs
Linking verbOpens in new window, also known as copular verb, does not express any action; it merely tell us the state of being or condition of the subject and serve to link a subject to a word or phrase describing it.
|Mr. Peterson is a doctor. The sky became cloudy. The garden is well kept.|