The Dutch Tried To Dominate The Clove Trade By ? History Ch 13 Flashcards



Motive and MeansIn the fifteenth century, Europeans began to sail all over the world. Because of conquests by the Ottoman Turks in the fourteenth century, Europeans could no longer travel by land to the East, like Marco Polo had done in the thirteenth century. This problem made them attempt to reach Asia by sea. They had three main motives for undertaking these dangerous voyages. The first motive was economic. Europeans hoped to find precious metals and to expand trade, especially for the spices of the East. The second motive was religious. Many Europeans believed that it was their duty to convert other peoples to Christianity. The third motive was a desire for glory and adventure. These three motives are sometimes referred to as “God, glory, and gold.” Not only did Europeans of the fifteenth century have motives for exploration, but they also had the means that they had not had before. By the second half of the fifteenth century, European monarchies had increased their power and their resources and were able to sponsor voyages. Europeans had also reached a level of technology that made the voyages possible.

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• The Portuguese Trading EmpireBeginning in 1420, Portuguese fleets began to explore the western coast of Africa. These fleets were sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator. In Africa, the Portuguese discovered a new source of gold. The southern coast of West Africa became known to Europeans as the Gold Coast. Portuguese sea captains heard about a route to Indian around the southern tip of Africa. In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip, called the Cape of Good Hope. Later, Vasco da Gama went around the cape and cut across the Indian Ocean to the coast of India. There he took on a cargo of spices. After he returned to Portugal, he made a profit of several thousand percent. Portuguese fleets returned to the area to gain control of the spice trade, which had been controlled by the Muslims. In 1509, a Portuguese fleet defeated a fleet of Turkish and Indian ships off the coast of India. A year later, Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque set up a port at Goa, on the western coast of India. The Portuguese then began to search for the source of the spice trade. Albuquerque gained control of Melaka, which was a thriving port for the spice trade. From Melaka, the Portuguese made expeditions to China and the Spice Islands. They signed a treaty with a local ruler for the purchase and export of cloves. This treaty gave the Portuguese control of the spice trade. The Portuguese now had a trading empire, but they did not try to colonize the Asian regions.
• Voyages to the AmericasThe Portuguese sailed eastward through the Indian Ocean to reach the source of the spice trade. The Spanish tried to reach it by sailing westward across the Atlantic Ocean. Christopher Columbus, an Italian, believed that he could reach Asia by sailing west, instead of east around Africa. He persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to finance an expedition. In October 1492, he reached the Americas. He believed that he had reached Asia. He made three more voyages to try to find a route through the islands to the Asian mainland. In his four voyages, he reached all of the major islands of the Caribbean and Honduras in Central America. Still convinced that he was in Asia, he called the islands the Indies.

By the 1490s, both Spain and Portugal had explored new lands. Both countries were afraid that the other might claim some of its newly discovered territories. In 1494, they signed the Treaty of Tordesillas. This treaty created a line of demarcation, an imaginary line that extended from north to south through the Atlantic Ocean and the easternmost part of South America. Unexplored territories east of the line would be controlled by Portugal. Those west of the line would be controlled by Spain. The treaty gave Portugal control over its route around Africa. It gave Spain rights to almost all of the Americas. The governments of many countries began to sponsor expeditions to the Americas. A Venetian seaman, John Cabot, explored the New England coastline for England. The Portuguese sea captain Pedro Cabral landed in South America in 1500.Amerigo Vespucciwent along on several voyages and wrote letters describing what he saw. His letters led to the use of the name America for the new lands. Europeans called these lands the New World, but they were only new to the Europeans. They already had flourishing civilizations when the Europeans arrived.

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• The Spanish EmpireThe Spanish conquerors of the Americas were known asconquistadors.Their weapons brought them incredible success. The forces of Hérnan Cortés took only three years to overthrow the Aztec Empire in Central America. By 1550, the Spanish had gained control of northern Mexico. In South America, an expedition led by Francisco Pizarro took control of the Inca Empire. The Portuguese took over Brazil, which fell on their side of the line of demarcation. By 1535, the Spanish had created a system of colonial administration in the Americas. Queen Isabella declared the Native Americans to be her subjects. She granted the Spanish settlersencomienda(the right to use Native Americans as laborers). Spanish settlers were supposed to protect Native Americans, but few did. Instead, they put them to work on sugar plantations and in gold and silver mines. Forced labor, starvation, and disease took a terrible toll on Native American lives. The native peoples had little resistance to European diseases, and 30 to 40 percent of them died from smallpox, measles, and typhus. In the early years of the conquest, Catholic missionaries converted and baptized hundreds of thousands of native peoples. Native American social and political structures were torn apart and replaced by European systems of religion, language, culture, and government.
• Economic Impact and CompetitionWherever they went, Europeans searched for gold and silver. Gold, silver, sugar, dyes, cotton, vanilla, and hides soon flowed into Europe from the Americas. Agricultural products, such as potatoes, cocoa, corn, and tobacco, were also shipped to Europe. In turn, Europeans brought horses, cattle, wheat, and cane sugar to the Americas. Historians call this exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas theColumbian Exchange. By the end of the sixteenth century, several European countries were vying for the eastern trade. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer who was financed by the king of Spain, sailed around the tip of South America and crossed the Pacific Ocean to the Philippine Islands.

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The Spanish then established a colony in the Philippines. Spanish ships carried silver from Mexico to the Philippines and returned to Mexico with silk and other luxury goods. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, an English fleet landed on the northwestern coast of India and established trade relations with the people there. The first Dutch fleet arrived in India in 1595. Shortly after, the Dutch formed the East India Company and began competing with the English and the Portuguese. The Dutch also formed the West India Company to compete in the Americas. They established the Dutch colony of New Netherlands in the Hudson River valley. However, the English seized the colony of New Netherlands and renamed it New York. They also founded Virginia and the Massachusetts Bay Colony. By 1700, the English had established a colonial empire along the eastern seaboard of North America. The French were also interested in the Americas and colonized parts of what is now Canada and Louisiana. In the 1500s and 1600s, European nations established trading posts and colonies in the Americas and the East. A colony is a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control. Colonies played a role in the theory of mercantilism, a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century. According to mercantilists, the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of bullion (gold and silver). To bring in gold and silver, nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade. The balance of trade is the difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports over time. When the balance is favorable, the goods exported are of greater value than those imported. To encourage exports, governments stimulated export industries and trade. They granted subsidies, or payments, to new industries and improved transportation systems. They tried to keep foreign goods out of their own countries by placing high tariffs (taxes) on these goods. Colonies were important because they were sources of raw materials and were markets for finished goods.

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