Identify the differences between a service enterprise and a merchandising company. Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. Determine the cost of goods sold under a periodic inventory system. Explain the factors affecting the profitability. (Appendix) Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Chapter Outline

Study Objective 1 - Identify the Differences Between a Service Enterprise and a Merchandising Company

In a merchandising company, the primary source of revenues is the sale of merchandise, referred to as sales revenue or sales. Unlike expenses for a service company, expenses for a merchandising company are divided into two categories: Cost of goods sold - the total cost of merchandise sold during the period. Operating expenses - selling and administrative expenses.

Examples of service companies include: flower shops, hair salons, banks, service stations, funeral homes, etc. The yellow pages of the phone book can be a good resource.

The operating cycle of a merchandising company ordinarily is longer than that of a service company.

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The purchase of merchandise inventory and its eventual sale lengthen the cycle.

Steps in the operating cycles for a service company and a merchandising company:

Service Company

Merchandising Company

Perform Services

Buy Inventory (Cash or nadechworld.com Payable)

Bill Customers (nadechworld.com Receivable)

Sell Inventory

Collect Cash from nadechworld.com Receivable

Bill Customers (nadechworld.com Receivable)

Collect Cash from nadechworld.com Receivable

Merchandising companies use one of two systems to account for inventory

Perpetual –

Detailed records of the cost of each inventory purchase and sale are maintained and the records continuously show the inventory that should be on hand for every item. For control purposes, companies take a physical inventory count to verify the accuracy of the inventory records.

Periodic –

Detailed records of the goods on hand are not kept throughout the period. A physical inventory is taken at the end of the accounting periods to determine cost of goods on hand as well as cost of goods sold.

Even with sophisticated computer systems, scanners, and software, not all companies use a perpetual system to keep up with inventory costs. Many companies will use a perpetual system to keep up with inventory quantities and a periodic system to keep up with costs.

Study Objective 2 -Explain the Recording of Purchases under a Perpetual Inventory System

The purchase of merchandise for resale is normally recorded by the merchandiser when the goods are received from the seller.

Every purchase should be supported by business documents that provide written evidence of the transaction. Every cash purchase should be supported by a canceled check or a cash register receipt indicating the items purchased and the amounts paid. Each credit purchase should be supported by a purchase invoice, which indicates the total purchase price and other relevant information. Cash purchases are recorded by an increase in Merchandise Inventory and a decrease in Cash. Credit purchases are recorded by an increase in Merchandise Inventory and an increase in nadechworld.com Payable. For example, the entry to record the May 4 purchases merchandise inventory by Sauk from PW Audio, 2/10, n/30 (as shown in the text) is:

May 4 ........Merchandise Inventory.......... 3,800 .........................nadechworld.com Payable..........................3,800


Goods that are damaged, defective, or of inferior quality may be returned to the seller for credit if the sale was made on credit, or for a cash refund if the purchase was for cash. The transaction described is a purchase return and is recorded by decreasing nadechworld.com Payable and decreasing Merchandise Inventory. The purchaser may choose to keep the goods that are damaged, defective, or of inferior quality provided the seller will grant a discount referred to as a purchase allowance. Freight costs are the cost of transporting the goods to the buyer"s place of business. If the freight costs are to by paid by the buyer, the costs are considered part of the cost of purchasing inventory. In this instance, Merchandise Inventory is increased and Cash is decreased. For example, if upon delivery of goods on May 9, Sauk Stereo (the buyer pays Haul-It Freight Company $150 for freight charges, the entry on Sauk’s books is:

May 9 ........Merchandise Inventory .......150 ................................ Cash ...................................150 (To record payment of freight on goods purchased)

Freight costs incurred by the seller on outgoing merchandise are an operating expense to the seller and labeled freight-out. Freight-out is recorded by increasing Freight-out and decreasing Cash. For example, if the freight terms require that the seller pay $150 freight charges, the entry would be:

Freight-out................ 150

*
..........Cash ........................150 (To record payment of freight on goods sold)

The credit terms of a purchase on account may allow the buyer to claim a discount if payment is made within a certain time. A common credit term is 2/10, n/30 which means a 2 percent purchase discount may be taken if the invoice is paid within 10 days of the invoice date. Net amount of the invoice is due within 30 days. When payment is made within the discount period, the amount of Merchandise Inventory decreases. The entry to record a payment would require the purchaser to decrease nadechworld.com Payable, Decrease Cash, and decrease Merchandise Inventory. For example, assume Sauk Stereo pays the balance due of $3,500 on May 14, the last day of the discount period, and takes the $70 discount. The credit term is 2/10, n/30.

May 14 ....nadechworld.com Payable 3,500 ...............................................Cash ...................3,430 ...............................................Merchandise Inv. .....70

If Sauk Stereo failed to take the discount and instead made full payment of $3,500 on June 3, Sauk would debit nadechworld.com Payable and credit Cash for $3,500.

June 3 ......nadechworld.com Payable 3,500 ................................................ Cash ................3,500

Not all purchases constitute purchases of Merchandise Inventory. Rather, a purchase of a cash register to be used in a clothing business would not be a purchase of merchandise for resale. However, if Dixie Cash Register purchased a cash register for resale the transaction would be considered a purchase of Merchandise Inventory.

Examples of purchases on account that would not be considered merchandise inventory and the proper accounting treatment for each.

Item purchased

Accounting treatment

Supplies

Record as a current asset. Make an ad justing entry on the last day of the accounting period to record supplies expense for the amount that was used during the accounting period.

Buildings, Equipment,

Furniture, Computers, Autos currently used in business operations

Record as property, plant, and equipment. Record depreciation expense.

Land

Record as a property, plant, and equipment. No depreciation is recorded.

Assets acquired for future use

Record as long-term investments.

Study Objective 3 -Explain the Recording of Sales Revenues under a Perpetual Inventory System

Sales revenues are recorded when goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer. This practice is in accordance with the revenue recognition principle. Sales may be made on credit or for cash. Each sales transaction should be supported by a business document that provides written evidence of the sale. Cash register tapes provide evidence of cash sales. A sales invoice provides written evidence of a credit sale. Cash sales are recorded by increasing Cash and increasing Sales. Credit sales are recorded by increasing nadechworld.com Receivable and increasing Sales.

For example, the journal entry to record the May 4 PW Audio Supply sale to Sauk Stereo is (the merchandise cost to PW is $2,400), terms 2/10, n/30:

May 4 .......nadechworld.com Receivable .....3,800 .................................................Sales..........................3,800

.................Cost of Goods Sold .........2,400 ...................................... Merchandise.Inventory.........2,400

Sales Returns and Allowances, a contra revenue account to Sales, may be used to record credit for returned goods. Two entries are required to record the credit for Sales Returns and Allowances. The first entry is an increase in Sales Returns and Allowances and a decrease in nadechworld.com Receivable. The second entry is an increase in Merchandise Inventory and a decrease in Cost of Goods Sold. For example, the entry by PW Audio to record a return on May 8 for which the selling price was $300 and the merchandise cost to PW was $140 is:

May 8 .......Sales Returns and Allowances ...........300 ................................... nadechworld.com Receivable.....................300

...................Merchandise Inventory...................... 140 ................................... Cost of Goods Sold.....................140

The seller may offer the customer a sales discount for the prompt payment of the balance due. A sales discount, which is based on the invoice price less any returns and allowances, is recorded by increasing cash for the amount received from the customer, decreasing nadechworld.com Receivable for the amount owed by the customer, and increasing Sales Discounts by the amount of the discount. For example, the entry by PW Audio Supply to record the cash receipt on May 14 from Sauk Stereo within the discount period is:

May 14 ........Cash ......................3,430 .....................Sales Discountns ..........70 ...................................nadechworld.com Receivable .............3,500 (To record collection within 2/10,n/30 discount period from Sauk Stereo)

Sales Discounts is a contra revenue account to sales.

It is important to have the net sales figure as well as the amounts in the contra asset nadechworld.com--sales returns and allowances and sales discounts.

A Sales Returns and Allowances account is used rather than decreasing sales directly because the company will want to know about the amount of merchandise being returned. Likewise, a Sales Discounts account is used in order disclose the amount of cash discounts taken by customers. Also, it is good to reinforce the notion that both the Sales Returns and Allowances account and the Sales Discounts nadechworld.com are contra revenue nadechworld.com to the Sales account. Because they are contra revenue nadechworld.com, they will have normal debit balances.

Study Objective 4 - Distinguish Between a Single-Step and a Multiple-Step Income Statement

There are two forms of income statements used by companies:

Single-step income statement - one step is required in determining net income--subtract total expenses from total revenues. Revenues--includes both operating revenues and other revenues and gains. Expenses--includes cost of goods sold, operating expenses, as well as other expenses and losses. Multiple-step income statement Highlights the components of net income. Distinguishes between operating and non-operating activities. Sales revenues--The income statement for a merchandising concern typically presents gross sales revenues for the period and deducts the contra revenue nadechworld.com(sales returns and allowances and sales discounts) to arrive at net sales. Cost of goods sold is the cost of the merchandise sold during the period. Gross profit--Cost of goods sold is deductedfrom net sales to determine gross profit.Gross profit is the merchandising profit of the company.

For a merchandising company the cost of goods sold is an expense and, traditionally, the largest expense item the company will have.

The gross margin is the amount a merchandising company has left after it pays for the merchandise it sold.

Operating expenses - are subtracted from gross profit in order to determine income from operations Operating expenses include- Selling expenses--all of the expenses associated with selling the merchandise from the solicitation of the sale until the product is in the hands of the buyer. Administrativeexpenses--general expenses relating to general operating activities, human resources, accounting, clerical, security, and so on Non-operating activities--unrelated to the company"s primary line of operations. Other revenues and gains--Interest, dividend, rent revenue, and gain from sale of property. Other expenses and losses--Interest expense; casualty losses; loss from sale or abandonment of property, plant, and equipment; and loss from strikes by employees and carriers

Study Objective 5 - Determine Cost of Goods Sold under a Periodic Inventory System

To determine cost of goods sold:

Beginning inventory (amount of ending inventory for the previous period)

Add: Cost of Goods Purchased Purchasens ... Less: Purchases Returns and Allowancens ... Purchases Discounts Add: Freight-in

This results in Cost of Goods Available for Sale (total amount that could have been sold during the accounting period)

Subtract: Ending inventory (determined by a physical count on the last day of the accounting period)

This results in Cost of Goods Sold (subtract this amount from Net Sales to arrive a Gross Profit)

Study Objective 6 -Explain the Factors Affecting Profitability

Gross profit rate, calculated by dividing the amount of gross profit by net sales, is generally considered to be more informative than the gross profit amount because it expresses a more meaningful (qualitative) relationship between gross profit and net sales.

Profit margin ratio, calculated by dividing net income by net sales, measures the percentage of each dollar of sales that results in net income.

The profit margin ratio measures the extent by which selling cover all expenses and the gross profit rate measure the margin by which selling price exceeds cost of goods sold.

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A company can improve its profit margin ratio by either increasing its gross profit rate and/or by controlling its operating expenses and other costs.

Study Objective Appendix –Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

To record purchases, entries are required for (a) cash and credit purchases, (b) purchase returns and allowances, (c) purchase discounts and (d) freight costs. To record sales, entries are required for (a) cash and credit sales, (b) sales returns and allowances, and (c) sales discounts.