You are watching: Is water an ionic or covalent bond
First of all, a solitary water molecule is composed of an oxygen atom attached to 2 hydrogen atoms. Each of the hydrogen atom is bound to the oxygen atom through a covalent bond. Why the bond is covalent can be described by looking at the electronegativities of each atom.
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First of all, a single water molecule is composed of an oxygen atom attached to two hydrogen atoms. Each of the hydrogen atom is bound to the oxygen atom via a covalent bond. Why the bond is covalent deserve to be described by looking at the electronegativities of each atom.
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A covalent bond is a type of bond where the atoms connected share electrons in order to attain an octet (8 electrons). Oxygen has 6 electrons, and by sharing electrons via 2 hydrogen atoms (each sharing one electron), it attains an octet. The hydrogens only need two electrons (exception to octet). This is as opposed to an ionic bond such as in NaCl wright here one of the atoms completely transfers the electron to the various other. Covalency is best once the two atoms have actually almost equal electronegativities. Electronegativity is the meacertain of the tendency of an atom in a bond to tempt the common electrons towards itself. Hence, the atom via the higher electronegativity will tempt the electrons more towards itself (this results to polar bonds). If the electronegativity in between the two atoms is exceptionally big, the bond developed is more most likely to be ionic. As a preeminence of thumb, if the distinction in electronegativity is much less than 0.4, the bond is thought about non-polar; between 0.4 and 1.7, the bond is polar. Both of these are covalent bonds. Above 1.7, the bond would certainly be thought about ionic.
In the situation of water, the electronegativity of oxygen is 3.5, while that of hydrogen is 2.1. The distinction is 1.4, and for this reason the bond is a polar covalent bond through electrons tfinishing to be closer to oxygen considering that it is even more electronegative. In summary, water has actually a covalent bond bereason of the nature of oxygen and hydrogen -- they share electrons to achieve stcapacity, and also their electronegativities are cshed sufficient for their bond to be thought about covalent.