What Tissue Cells May Absorb Secrete And Filter ? Classification Of Tissues Flashcards

a tissue is a group of similar cells with intercellular material that together perform a specific function. Four basic tissues and germ layer derivative 1. Epithelial tissue: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm 2. Connective tissue: mesoderm 3. Muscle tissue: mesoderm 4. Nervous tissue: ectoderm


2. Characteristics

Function – protect, absorb, secrete Exist in sheets of cells (membranes) No blood supply Contain an inferior basement membrane – anchors epithelial tissue to connective tissue below – is composed of connective tissue fibers and intercellular substance Types of Epithelial Cells – Squamous – flat, irregular cells – Columnar – column-shaped with oval nucleus at base of cell – Cuboidal – relatively square; central nucleus Method of Classifying Epithelial Tissue – by cell type – by number of cell layers simple – one cell layer stratified – multiple cell layers

3. Types of Epithelial Tissue

Simple Squamous epithelium


Structure – single layer of flat, squamous cells Function – flattened cells emphasize ability to absorb Location – air sac (alveoli) of lungs, capillary walls, covering of organs, part of kidney that filters blood

Simple cuboidal epithelium


Structure – single layer of cuboidal cells Function – absorption, secretion Location – kidney tubules, lines cornea & lens of eye, Thyroid gland

Simple columnar epithelium


Structure – single layer of columnar cells – may contain the following specialized structures a. Goblet cells – specialized for mucus secretion b. Microvilli with perpendicular projections for absorption c. Cilia in respiratory tract Function – protection, secretion, absorption Location – lining of digestive tract, gall bladder and part of uterine tubes & respiratory tract

Keratinized stratified squamousepithelium

Structure – multiple layers of three epithelial cell types, superficial cells, dehydrate, fuse, and fill with keratin, a yellow, horny material – basal layer undergoes mitosis Function – protection of living cells below – first line of defense Location – surfaces constantly exposed to air; skin

Nonkeratinized stratified squamousepithelium


Structure – multiple layer of three epithelial cell types; contains mucous glands Function – protection from abrasion Location – lining of mouth, esophagus, vagina

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium


Structure – single layer of columnar cells with appearance of multiple layers – may contain goblet cells and cilia Function – protection, trap dust particles Location – lining of trachea, male reproductive ducts, ducts of some glands

Transitional epithelium


Structure – all 3 types of cells with rounding of outer layer Function – allow for stretch (distension) Location – lining of urinary bladder and ureters

Glandular Epithelium

Definition – specialized group of epithelial cells that function in secretion

Histology online sites

Connective Tissue

4. Characteristics

Function – support and binding Cells are scattered among fibers and a matrix Vascular Arises from embryonic mesenchyme Matrix varies from fluid to solid, holds fibers and cells in place while determining the function of the tissue Fibers are made from three proteins Types of fibers a. Collagenous – contains the protein collagen, – fibers are strong and flexible b. Reticular fibers – fine branching fibers form a supporting framework c. Elastic fibers – protein is elastin, fibers have strength and elasticity Types of Connective Tissue Cells a. Fibroblast – produces fibers & matrix – most numerous – involved in repair and growth b.

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Fibrocyte – mature fibroblast – maintenance c. Macrophages – defense, phagocytosis d. Plasma cells – source of circulating antibodies e. Mast Cell – releases heparin, an anti-coagulant – releases histamine, dilates small blood vessels f. Fat Cell – stores triglycerides – signet ring shape

5. Types of Connective Tissue

Areolar connective tissue (areolar)


Structure – collagenous & elastic fibers – all 6 types of connective tissue cells – fluid matrix contains hyaluronic acid which aids in diffusion Function – covers organs – holds blood vessels & nerves in place – widely distributed – nutritive role – second line of defense Location – mucous membranes – between tissue of body organs – with adipose tissue forms subcutaneous layer

Dense connective tissue


Structure – collagenous fibers predominate – cells are fibroblasts and macrophages – dense matrix Function – provides strength Location – fibers arranged in parallel bundles for strength – tendons (attaches muscle to bone) – ligaments (holds bones to joints) – fibers irregular for stretch aponeuroses (fasciae) and capsules of organs

Elastic connective tissue


Structure – free branching elastic fibers, few fibroblasts Function – allows expansion and recoil Location – lungs, trachea, arteries, aorta

Reticular connective tissue


Structure- mainly reticular fibers, thin matrix Function – holds cells of loose organs together Location – liver, spleen, bone marrow

Adipose connective tissue


Structure – collagenous and elastic fibers – all six connective tissue cells – fibroblasts specialize as fat cells (central fat vacuole thin cytoplasm) – associated with areolar connective tissue Function – food reserve for energy – prevents loss of body heat Location – around most organs – beneath skin – marrow of long bones


General characteristics 1. cells are chondrocytes 2. matrix is semisolid containing chondroitin 3. lacuna – a depression in matrix which houses chondrocytes 4. perichondrium – connective tissue membrane around cartilage 5. no blood supply Types

Hyaline cartilage


Structure – invisible fine collagenous fibers – two chondrocytes housed in each lacunae – thick gelatinous ground substance Function – acts as a model for embryonic bone formation, prevents tissue damage from friction. Provides shape to nose and respiratory passages Location – covering bone ends at joints – tip of nose – between rib and sternum (costal) – epiphyseal plate Fibrocartilage Structure – collagenous fibers arranged in parallel bundles – chondrocytes sandwiched between bundles Function – provides strength Location – intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis

Elastic cartilage

Structure – many elastic fibers Function – allows for bending with return to original shape Location – external ear, larynx and eustachian tubes

Bone tissue

General Characteristics – organic matter – 35% (cells & fibers) – inorganic material – 65% (matrix & calcium salts) Types of bone cells 1. osteocytes – maintenance of intercellular material (matrix) 2. osteoblasts – peripheral bone forming cells 3. osteoclasts – internal, actively destroy bone matrix Classification of bone according to structure


1. Compact bone – arranged into concentric rings called Haversian systems – provides strength – is external & solid – Haversian system consists of: lamella – concentric ring of matrix lacuna – openings between lamellae for osteocytes osteocytes – mature bone cell Haversian canal – in center of lamella; houses vessels Canaliculi – radiating channels between lacuna and Haversian canal for nutrients and wastes Volkmann canal – crosswise canals from Haversian canal to exterior containing blood vessels and nerves


2. Spongy bone – irregular lattice work of bone called trabecula- spaces filled with red bone marrow- osteocytes trapped within calcium matrix

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